Analysis of functions and applications of intelligent tutoring system for personalized adaptive learning in mathematics
성지현 Sung¸ Jihyun
62(3) 303326, 2023
성지현 Sung¸ Jihyun
DOI: JANT Vol.62(No.3) 303326, 2023
Mathematics is a discipline with a strong systemic structure, and learning deficits in previous stages have a great influence on the next stages of learning. Therefore, it is necessary to frequently check whether students have learned well and to provide immediate feedback, and for this purpose, intelligent tutoring system(ITS) can be used in math education. For this reason, it is necessary to reveal how the intelligent tutoring system is effective in personalized adaptive learning. The purpose of this study is to investigate the functions and applications of intelligent tutoring system for personalized adaptive learning in mathematics. To achieve this goal, literature reviews and surveys with students were applied to derive implications. Based on the literature reviews, the functions of intelligent tutoring system for personalized adaptive learning were derived. They can be broadly divided into diagnosis and evaluation, analysis and prediction, and feedback and content delivery. The learning and lesson plans were designed by them and it was applied to fifth graders in elementary school for about three months. As a result of this study, intelligent tutoring system was mostly supporting personalized adaptive learning in mathematics in several ways. Also, the researcher suggested that more sophisticated materials and technologies should be developed for effective personalized adaptive learning in mathematics by using intelligent tutoring system.

Value in math learning according to sociocultural background and metaaffect of secondary school students
김선희 Kim¸ Sun Hee
62(3) 327340, 2023
김선희 Kim¸ Sun Hee
DOI: JANT Vol.62(No.3) 327340, 2023
The value that students consider important in math learning may vary depending on the student's sociocultural background and personal experience. Although sociocultural backgrounds are very diverse, I considered overseas vs domestic Koreans, and secondary school levels as variables in terms of students' educational experiences. Overseas students had a lower perception of the value in mathematics than domestic students, especially about understanding mathematics knowledge and the value of the latest teaching and learning methods. Middle school students perceived the value of mathematics as an activity higher than that of high school students, and high school students perceived student agency as a higher value than middle school students. In addition, I considered metaaffect as one of the individual students' experiences, finally metaaffect was a variable that could explain value perception in math learning, and in particular, affective awareness of achievement, affective evaluation of value, and affective using were significant. From the results, I suggested that research on ways to improve the value and the metaaffect in math learning, test to measure the value of students in math learning, the expansion of research subjects to investigate the value in math learning, and a teacher who teaches overseas Koreans are needed.

Analysis of student noticing in a lesson that emphasizing relational understanding of equals sign
이유진 Lee¸ Yujin
62(3) 341362, 2023
이유진 Lee¸ Yujin
DOI: JANT Vol.62(No.3) 341362, 2023
This study analyzed student noticing in a lesson that emphasized relational understanding of equal signs for first graders from four aspects: centers of focus, focusing interactions, mathematical tasks, and nature of the mathematical activity. Specifically, the instructional factors that emphasize the relational understanding of equal signs derived from previous research were applied to a firstgrade addition and subtraction unit, and then lessons emphasizing the relational understanding of equal signs were conducted. Students' noticing in this lesson was comprehensively analyzed using the focusing framework proposed in the previous study. The results showed that in real classroom contexts centers of focus is affected by the structure of the equation and the form of the task, teacherstudent interactions, and normed practices. In particular, we found specific teacherstudent interactions, such as emphasizing the meaning of the equals sign or using examples, that helped students recognize the equals sign relationally. We also found that students' noticing of the equation affects reasoning about equation, such as being able to reason about the equation relationally if they focuse on two quantities of the same size or the relationship between both sides. These findings have implications for teaching methods of equal sign.

Analyzing an elementary school teacher’s difficulties and mathematical modeling knowledge improvement in the process of modifying a mathematics textbook task to a mathematical modeling task: Focused on an experienced teacher
정혜윤 Jung¸ Hyeyun
62(3) 363380, 2023
정혜윤 Jung¸ Hyeyun
DOI: JANT Vol.62(No.3) 363380, 2023
This study analyzed the difficulties and mathematical modeling knowledge improvement that an elementary school teacher experienced in modifying a mathematics textbook task to a mathematical modeling task. To this end, an elementary school teacher with 10 years of experience participated in teacherresearcher community’s repeated discussions and modified the average task in the data and pattern domain of the 5th grade. The results are as followings. First, in the process of task modification, the teacher had difficulties in reflecting reality, setting the appropriate cognitive level of mathematical modeling tasks, and presenting detailed tasks according to the mathematical modeling process. Second, through repeated task modifications, the teacher was able to develop realistic tasks considering the mathematical content knowledge and students' cognitive level, set the cognitive level of the task by adjusting the complexity and openness of the task, and present detailed tasks through thought experiments on students' tasksolving process, which shows that teachers' mathematical modeling knowledge, including the concept of mathematical modeling and the characteristics of the mathematical modeling task, has improved. The findings of this study suggest that, in terms of the mathematical modeling teacher education, it is necessary to provide teachers with opportunities to improve their mathematical modeling task development competency through textbook task modification rather than direct provision of mathematical modeling tasks, experience mathematical modeling theory and practice together, and participate in teacherresearcher communities.

Inservice teacher's perception on the mathematical modeling tasks and competency for designing the mathematical modeling tasks: Focused on reality
황선영 Hwang Seonyoung , 한선영 Han Sunyoung
62(3) 381400, 2023
황선영 Hwang Seonyoung , 한선영 Han Sunyoung
DOI: JANT Vol.62(No.3) 381400, 2023
As the era of solving various and complex problems in the real world using artificial intelligence and big data appears, problemsolving competencies that can solve realistic problems through a mathematical approach are required. In fact, the 2015 revised mathematics curriculum and the 2022 revised mathematics curriculum emphasize mathematical modeling as an activity and competency to solve realworld problems. However, the realworld problems presented in domestic and international textbooks have a high proportion of artificial problems that rarely occur in realworld. Accordingly, domestic and international countries are paying attention to the reality of mathematical modeling tasks and suggesting the need for authentic tasks that reflect students' daily lives. However, not only did previous studies focus on theoretical proposals for reality, but studies analyzing teachers' perceptions of reality and their competency to reflect reality in the task are insufficient. Accordingly, this study aims to analyze inservice mathematics teachers’ perception of reality among the characteristics of tasks for mathematical modeling and the inservice mathematics teachers’ competency for designing the mathematical modeling tasks. First of all, five criteria for satisfying the reality were established by analyzing literatures. Afterward, teacher training was conducted under the theme of mathematical modeling. Pre and postsurveys for 41 inservice mathematics teachers who participated in the teacher training was conducted to confirm changes in perception of reality. The pre and post surveys provided a task that did not reflect reality, and inservice mathematics teachers determined whether the task given in surveys reflected reality and selected one reason for the judgment among five criteria for reality. Afterwards, frequency analysis was conducted by coding the results of the survey answered by inservice mathematics teachers in the pre and post survey, and frequencies were compared to confirm inservice mathematics teachers' perception changes on reality. In addition, the mathematical modeling tasks designed by inservice teachers were evaluated with the criteria for reality to confirm the teachers' competency for designing mathematical modeling tasks reflecting the reality. As a result, it was shown that inservice mathematics teachers changed from insufficient perception that only considers fragmentary criterion for reality to perceptions that consider all the five criteria of reality. In particular, as a result of analyzing the basis for judgment among inservice mathematics teachers whose judgment on reality was reversed in the pre and postsurvey, changes in the perception of inservice mathematics teachers was confirmed, who did not consider certain criteria as a criterion for reality in the presurvey, but considered them as a criterion for reality in the postsurvey. In addition, as a result of evaluating the tasks designed by inservice mathematics teachers for mathematical modeling, inservice mathematics teachers showed the competency to reflect reality in their tasks. However, among the five criteria for reality, the criterion for "situations that can occur in students' daily lives," "need to solve the task," and "require conclusions in a realworld situation" were relatively less reflected. In addition, it was found that the proportion of teachers with low task development competencies was higher in the teacher group who could not make the right judgment than in the teacher group who could make the right judgment on the reality of the task. Based on the results of these studies, this study provides implications for teacher education to enable mathematics teachers to apply mathematical modeling lesson in their classes.

Preservice teacher’s understanding of the intention to use the artificial intelligence program ‘KnockKnock! Mathematics Expedition’ in mathematics lesson: Focusing on selfefficacy, artificial intelligence anxiety, and technology acceptance model
손태권 Son¸ Taekwon
62(3) 401416, 2023
손태권 Son¸ Taekwon
DOI: JANT Vol.62(No.3) 401416, 2023
This study systematically examined the influence of preservice teachers' selfefficacy and AI anxiety, on the intention to use AI programs ‘knockknock! mathematics expedition’ in mathematics lessons based on a technology acceptance model. The research model was established with variables including selfefficacy, AI anxiety, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and intention of use from 254 preservice teachers. The structural relationships and direct and indirect effects between these variables were examined through structural equation modeling. The results indicated that selfefficacy significantly affected perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and intention to use. In contrast, AI anxiety did not significantly influence perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Perceived ease of use significantly affected perceived usefulness and intention to use and perceived usefulness significantly affected intention to use. The findings offer insights and strategies for encouraging the use of ‘knockknock! mathematics expedition’ by preservice teachers in mathematics lessons.

Analysis of Finnish mathematics textbooks on movement of a point: Focused on spatial orientation elements
권미선 Kwon¸ Misun
62(3) 417433, 2023
권미선 Kwon¸ Misun
DOI: JANT Vol.62(No.3) 417433, 2023
In the 2022 revised mathematics curriculum, a new content on ‘Movement of a point’ was added. Therefore, this study analyzed the contents of the movement of a point presented in Finnish mathematics textbooks as elements of spatial orientation. Analysis was conducted by dividing it into direction, distance, and route. As a result of the study, in Finnish textbooks, directions were expressed in various ways, such as linguistic, visual, and coded expressions. In the case of distance, activities to move as much as the distance or compare the distance were presented using the number of cells, length, steps, coordinate points, ratio, etc. In the case of routes, activities such as moving according to instructions, making routes, finding the route, and modifying the route were presented using unconditional movement and conditional movement. In particular, the movement of a point could be linked not only to various mathematical content areas such as 'number and arithmetic' and 'change and relationship', but also to digital literacy and programming education. Knowing that the movement of a point can be presented in various ways according to the direction, distance, and route, it is expected that it can be used to organize the contents of the 2022 revised mathematics textbook.

Analysis of the impact of mathematics education research using explainable AI
오세준 Oh¸ Se Jun
62(3) 435455, 2023
오세준 Oh¸ Se Jun
DOI: JANT Vol.62(No.3) 435455, 2023
This study primarily focused on the development of an Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) model to discern and analyze papers with significant impact in the field of mathematics education. To achieve this, metainformation from 29 domestic and international mathematics education journals was utilized to construct a comprehensive academic research network in mathematics education. This academic network was built by integrating five subnetworks: ‘paper and its citation network’, ‘paper and author network’, ‘paper and journal network’, ‘coauthorship network’, and ‘author and affiliation network’. The Random Forest machine learning model was employed to evaluate the impact of individual papers within the mathematics education research network. The SHAP, an XAI model, was used to analyze the reasons behind the AI's assessment of impactful papers. Key features identified for determining impactful papers in the field of mathematics education through the XAI included ‘paper network PageRank’, ‘changes in citations per paper’, ‘total citations’, ‘changes in the author's hindex’, and ‘citations per paper of the journal’. It became evident that papers, authors, and journals play significant roles when evaluating individual papers. When analyzing and comparing domestic and international mathematics education research, variations in these discernment patterns were observed. Notably, the significance of 'coauthorship network PageRank' was emphasized in domestic mathematics education research.
The XAI model proposed in this study serves as a tool for determining the impact of papers using AI, providing researchers with strategic direction when writing papers. For instance, expanding the paper network, presenting at academic conferences, and activating the author network through coauthorship were identified as major elements enhancing the impact of a paper. Based on these findings, researchers can have a clear understanding of how their work is perceived and evaluated in academia and identify the key factors influencing these evaluations.
This study offers a novel approach to evaluating the impact of mathematics education papers using an explainable AI model, traditionally a process that consumed significant time and resources. This approach not only presents a new paradigm that can be applied to evaluations in various academic fields beyond mathematics education but also is expected to substantially enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of research activities.
