Elementary textbook adoption process and teacher decisions
한채린 Han Chaereen , 임웅 Lim Woong
61(2) 221237, 2022
한채린 Han Chaereen , 임웅 Lim Woong
DOI: JANT Vol.61(No.2) 221237, 2022
This study investigated teachers’ decisionmaking and related factors in the elementary textbook adoption process. Our participants include 296 elementary teachers who took part in the mathematics textbook (grades 3 and 4) adoption committees in his/her schools. Our study used the decisionmaking model of Shavelson and Stern (1981) for analyzing teacher beliefs and attitudes concerning choices and priorities, judgments, evaluation methods, and key factors to reviewing and selecting a mathematics textbook. Our discussion includes teacher beliefs and intentions and the way they come into conflict with determinant factors that influence the decisionmaking of textbook adoption. Findings also reveal the unique nature of elementary school teaching as generalists in contrast with secondary teachers as specialists, playing a significant role in the adoption process. Lastly, the study discusses the entanglements of textbook reform and explains the discrepancy between textbook authorization/approval policies versus the plight of little change (and innovation) in mathematics textbooks.

Difficulties and differences in perception and performance on processbased assessment for high school mathematics teacher
오서영 Oh Seoyoung , 권나영 Kwon Na Young
61(2) 239256, 2022
오서영 Oh Seoyoung , 권나영 Kwon Na Young
DOI: JANT Vol.61(No.2) 239256, 2022
This study was to investigate the perception, performance, and difficulties of processbased assessment for high school mathematics teachers. As a qualitative case study, two indepth group interviews were conducted with 6 high school mathematics teachers working in Incheon area. The two groups were one with more experience in processbased assessment and the other with less experience. As results, there were differences between the participant teachers’ perception of processbased assessment and their actual performance depending on the experience. All six math teachers thought that the processbased assessment was intended to confirm the learner’s characteristics, to evaluate the process, and to provide feedback on a regular basis immediately and individually. However, in the practical performance shared by teachers, the purpose of assessment was to create a school record. A group with a lot of experience prepared assessment criteria according to the national curriculum achievement standards, established affective assessment plans, and tried to provide individual feedback on a regular basis. On the other hand, the inexperienced group recorded the affective characteristics discovered by chance and provided temporary and largescale feedback regardless of the achievement criteria. Finally, we suggested some implications based on the study results.

Analysis of achievement predictive factors and predictive AI model development  Focused on blended math classes
안도연 Ahn Doyeon , 이광호 Lee Kwangho
61(2) 257271, 2022
안도연 Ahn Doyeon , 이광호 Lee Kwangho
DOI: JANT Vol.61(No.2) 257271, 2022
As information and communication technologies are being developed so rapidly, education research is actively conducted to provide optimal learning for each student using big data and artificial intelligence technology. In this study, using the mathematics learning data of elementary school 5th to 6th graders conducting blended mathematics classes, we tried to find out what factors predict mathematics academic achievement and developed an artificial intelligence model that predicts mathematics academic performance using the results. Math learning propensity, LMS data, and evaluation results of 205 elementary school students had analyzed with a random forest model. Confidence, anxiety, interest, selfmanagement, and confidence in math learning strategy were included as mathematics learning disposition. The progress rate, number of learning times, and learning time of the elearning site were collected as LMS data. For evaluation data, results of diagnostic test and unit test were used. As a result of the analysis it was found that the mathematics learning strategy was the most important factor in predicting lowachieving students among mathematics learning propensities. The LMS training data had a negligible effect on the prediction. This study suggests that an AI model can predict lowachieving students with learning data generated in a blended math class. In addition, it is expected that the results of the analysis will provide specific information for teachers to evaluate and give feedback to students.

The structure of teacher discourse in the process of solving mathematic problems
최상호 Choi Sangho
61(2) 273286, 2022
최상호 Choi Sangho
DOI: JANT Vol.61(No.2) 273286, 2022
The purpose of this study is to analyze the teacher's discourse structure in the process of solving mathematics problems based on the communication between teachers and students. To achieve this goal, we observed a semester class by a teacher with experience who practiced a teaching method that creates mathematical meanings based on students' participation in class. In order to solve problems based on the participation of students in each class, the similarities between the processes of creating the structure of the discourse were analyzed. As a result of the analysis, the teacher was able to focus on the goal in the process of starting a discourse, and in the process of developing the discourse, the problem was solved by focusing on understanding the problem. In the process of arranging the discourse, the problemsolving process and the core of the result is summarized. Based on the possibility of generalization of the teacher discourse structure, it will be able to provide practical help in the process of implementing a teaching method that solves mathematics problems by communicating with students in the future.

Analysis of mathematics test structures and tasks in Abitur
김성경 Kim Seongkyeong , 이미영 Lee Miyoung
61(2) 287303, 2022
김성경 Kim Seongkyeong , 이미영 Lee Miyoung
DOI: JANT Vol.61(No.2) 287303, 2022
The purpose of this study is to draw implications for the improvement in the CSAT by analyzing structures and tasks in the Abitur. To this end, it analyzes the mathematics test system with a focus on the basic and advanced level examination systems, the operator, the using technology, and mathematical formulas. And the characteristics of tasks in the 2021 Abitur were analyzed. As a result of the analysis, first, Germany evaluates whether students have the competency emphasized in the curriculum at Abitur. Second, Germany, which emphasizes the proper use of technology, utilizes both tasks that use technology and those that do not in the Abitur. Third, the Abitur consists of most of the tasks using promised operators and uses various types of operators to present various types of questions to evaluate competence. Fourth, the Abitur includes not only simple structured items consisting of 23 subtasks but also tasks dealing in depth with a single situation centered on a big idea. Finally, mathematical justification and proof play an important role in the Abitur. Based on this, some specific measures for improving the CSAT were suggested.

The concept of the angle presented in the middle school mathematics textbooks
김수미 Kim Soo Mi , 허혜자 Heo Hae Ja
61(2) 305322, 2022
김수미 Kim Soo Mi , 허혜자 Heo Hae Ja
DOI: JANT Vol.61(No.2) 305322, 2022
Angle has a variety of aspects, such as figure, measurement, and rotation, but is mainly introduced from a figure perspective and a quantitative perspective of the angle is also partially experienced in the elementary mathematics textbooks. The purpose of this study was to examine how the angle concept introduction and development pattern in elementary school mathematics textbooks are linked or changed in middle school mathematics textbooks, and based on this, was to get the direction of writing math textbooks and implications for guidance. To this end, 57 math textbooks for the first grade of middle school were collected from the first to the 2015 revised curriculum. As a result of the study, it was found that middle school textbooks had a greater dynamic aspect of each than elementary school textbooks, and the proportion of quantitative attributes of angle was higher in addition to qualitative and relational attributes. In other words, the concept of angle in middle school textbooks is presented in a more multifaceted and complex form than in elementary school textbooks. Finally, matters that require consensus within elementary, secondary, and secondary schools were also proposed, such as the use of visual expression or symbol, such as the use of arrows and dots, and the use of mathematical terms such as vertex of angle and side of angle.

An analysis on concept definition and concept image on quadrangle of middle and high school students
장현석 Chang Hyun Suk , 김명창 Kim Myung Chang , 이봉주 Lee Bongju
61(2) 323338, 2022
장현석 Chang Hyun Suk , 김명창 Kim Myung Chang , 이봉주 Lee Bongju
DOI: JANT Vol.61(No.2) 323338, 2022
The purpose of this study are to analyze how well middle and high school students understand the concept definition of quadrangle and to explore the phenomenon about their concept image. A test tool was developed and 60 8^{th} graders, 63 9^{th} graders and 65 10^{th} graders were tested, and some students who needed indepth analysis were interviewed. The results are as follows. First, it cannot be said that understanding level of the concept definition of the quadrangle naturally improves as the grade level goes up. Particularly, it was found that the understanding of the definition of the rhombus is the lowest in all three grades compared to other quadrangle. Second, although female students understood the definition of square better than male students, the understanding level of the definition of trapezoid, parallelogram, rhombus, and rectangle did not differ by gender. Third, it was found that the students who did not understand the concept definition of the quadrangle were more and more influenced by the concept image as the grade level went up. Fourth, it showed that a tendency to be less influenced by the concept definition and more influenced by textbooks and teachers as the grades go up when students form a concept image.

Preservice mathematics teachers’ noticing competency: Focusing on teaching for robust understanding of mathematics
김희정 Kim Heejeong
61(2) 339357, 2022
김희정 Kim Heejeong
DOI: JANT Vol.61(No.2) 339357, 2022
This study explores preservice secondary mathematics teachers (PSTs)’ noticing competency. 17 PSTs participated in this study as a part of the mathematics teaching method class. Individual PST’s essays regarding the question ‘what effective mathematics teaching would be?’ that they discussed and wrote at the beginning of the course were collected as the first data. PSTs’ written analysis of an expert teacher’s teaching video, colleague PSTs’ demoteaching video, and own demoteaching video were also collected and analyzed. Findings showed that most PSTs’ noticing level improved as the class progressed and showed a pattern of focusing on each key aspect in terms of the Teaching for Robust Understanding of Mathematics (TRU Math) framework, but their reasoning strategies were somewhat varied. This suggests that the TRU Math framework can support PSTs to improve the competency of 'what to attend' among the noticing components. In addition, the instructional reasoning strategies imply that PSTs’ noticing reasoning strategy was mostly related to their interpretation of noticing components, which should be also emphasized in the teacher education program.

A study on longitudinal relationship with academic stress, math selfefficacy, and math class engagement : Using auto regressive crosslagged model
송효섭 Song Hyo Seob , 정희선 Jung Hee Sun
61(2) 359373, 2022
송효섭 Song Hyo Seob , 정희선 Jung Hee Sun
DOI: JANT Vol.61(No.2) 359373, 2022
This study aims to examine the differences in the longitudinal relationship between academic stress, mathematics selfefficacy, and engagement in mathematics class according to the math achievement level. According to the results, academic stress, math selfefficacy, and math class engagement were stable over time for the high and low groups. Also, In the high group, math selfefficacy had a negative longitudinal mediation effect in the influence of academic stress to math class engagement. Whereas, in the low group math class engagement had a positive longitudinal mediation effect in the influence of academic stress to math selfefficacy. This means that the academic stress affects differently according to the math achievement level, and mathematics teachers should reflect these results in their teaching/learning strategies so that students can increase their mathematics selfefficacy along with their engagement in mathematics classes.
