Analysis of Number System introduced in the 7th National Mathematics Curriculum and Mathematics Text Books of Korea
김흥기 Kim Heung Gi
42(3) 265274, 2003
김흥기 Kim Heung Gi
DOI: JANT Vol.42(No.3) 265274, 2003
To learn number system is a basic thing in school mathematics. In this paper, we analyze how number system is introduced in the 7th national curriculum and text books according to it. We found that the method of introducing number system is quite different from the former curriculum and former text books. There are many negative effects on the transition when compared with those of United States of America. There are many gaps between elementary school mathematics and middle school mathematics about levels and skills to deal with numbers. It is desirable to distinguish the negative sign from subtraction and to keep the concepts of commutativity and associativity of operations from the beginning. We also suggest to change the introducing timing and extension methods of number system in 7th grade mathematics.

A Study on the Comparison of Middle School Mathematics Textbooks in Korea and Germany Focused on the Area of Algebra
노정학 No Jeong Hag , 양춘우 Yang Chun U , 정환옥 Jeong Hwan Og
42(3) 275294, 2003
노정학 No Jeong Hag , 양춘우 Yang Chun U , 정환옥 Jeong Hwan Og
DOI: JANT Vol.42(No.3) 275294, 2003
In this paper we compared and analyzed the Korean and German mathematics textbooks for the middle school students. For the research we investigated only the area of algebra, which is consisted of the three sectionssection of numbers and arithmetic operations, section of letters and expressions, and section of rules and functions. We expect that this paper would contribute on the development of the whole area in our nation`s mathematical educations, including the organization and exploitation of the curriculums for the middle school students.

An Analysis and Study for the Math Disliking Tendency of the Australian Students Compare to the Students of Middle School of Korea
박기양 Park Gi Yang
42(3) 295302, 2003
박기양 Park Gi Yang
DOI: JANT Vol.42(No.3) 295302, 2003
The purpose of this study is to make more reliable researches on the tendency of shirking from the mathematics by including those of the students in the other country, and there are a series of researches such as `matecamp to raise the mathematical tendency of the students who make little progress in the study`, `establishment of factors causing the shirking tendency from the mathematics and development of the analyzing instruments for it` and `study on the preference to each category of the school mathematics`. For this purpose, I used a test developed by the shirking tendency research team. I compared the average score and standard deviation between the Korean and the Australian students. As for the average score, that of the Australian elementary school students is about one point higher than the Korean students, and there was no remarkable difference in the deviation. Comparing the mathshirking tendency of the two group, they show higher shirking tendency in the aspects of emotional and mathematical recognition that belong to the psychological and environmental sphere. And, as for an extent of association in difficulties according to each school grades, its degree of the Australian students is comparatively lower than that of the Korean students, therefore, the shirking tendency of the Australian students is intermediate level whereas that of the Korean students is the lowest. They show us a peculiar result in teacher factor. It is noteworthy in that the Korean students show a positive reaction in that factor, however, the Australian students show a comparatively weak reaction. It might be caused by a cultural difference. I also have compared the accumulated percentage according to each shirking tendency factors. It will not only be very efficient for teachers to establish a teaching plan but also a good data to understand the shirking tendency of each student. This will be a very good data for the planners of teaching policy to remedy the causes of shirking tendency. And, it will also be used effectively to write a new textbook. It has been uncommon that a psychological test is used in the research for the improvement of teaching and learning mathematics. In this aspect, I am sure that this study including the preceding research will be a good in studying the shirking tendency factors by using a psychological test. I believe that this research will be a help to grasp the outline of the shirking tendency and I will have to try continuously to make it be a reasonable and reliable study.

The Concept Understanding of Infinity and Infinite Process and Reflective Abstraction
전명남 Jeon Myeong Nam
42(3) 303325, 2003
전명남 Jeon Myeong Nam
DOI: JANT Vol.42(No.3) 303325, 2003
This study sought to provide an explanation of university students` concept understanding on the infinity and infinite process and utilized a psychological constructivist perspective to examine the differences in transitions that students make from static concept of limit to actualized infinity stage in context of problems. Openended questions were used to gather data that were used to develop an explanation concerning student understanding. 47 university students answered individually and were asked to solve 16 tasks developed by Petty(1996). Microgenetic method with two cases from the expertnovice perspective were used to develop and substantiate an explanation regarding students` transitions from static concept of limit to actualized infinity stage. The protocols were analyzed to document student conceptions. Cifarelli(1988)`s levels of reflective abstraction and Robert(1982) and Sierpinska(1985)`s threestage concept development model of infinity and infinite process provided a framework for this explanation. Students who completed a transition to actualized infinity operated higher levels of reflective abstraction than students who was unable to complete such a transition. Developing this ability was found to be critical in achieving about understanding the concept of infinity and infinite process.

An Instruction of the Underachieved Students Based on Cooperative Learning
홍진곤 Hong Jin Gon , 조승래 Jo Seung Lae
42(3) 327335, 2003
홍진곤 Hong Jin Gon , 조승래 Jo Seung Lae
DOI: JANT Vol.42(No.3) 327335, 2003
This study analyzes the effectiveness of cooperative learning in the instruction of the underachieved students. The result of this study showed that students who participated in the cooperative learning tended to exert positive effects on the cognitive and affective(interest, selfconfidence, motivation) domains. In the cooperative learning, the underachieved students were encouraged in mathematics learning and improved the efficiency of learning in mathematics.

Infant Math Education at College Math Classes for developing general mathematics subject
김병무 Kim Byeong Mu , 박재명 Park Jae Myeong
42(3) 337352, 2003
김병무 Kim Byeong Mu , 박재명 Park Jae Myeong
DOI: JANT Vol.42(No.3) 337352, 2003
In this paper, we have studied the ways to enhance students` interest in infant math education. Firstly, we explain to the students the relation between the infant math skills and the college math contents. Next, the students practiced the subject about the infant education and the infant math education in real environment. Finally, the results of the practice are analyzed. From this study, we could find that the students got good experiences in infant math education activities and had the chance to change their mind in affirmative way for the infant math eduction and mathematics itself through performing given projects and investigations.

Middle School Students` Analogical Transfer in Algebra Word Problem Solving
이종희 Lee Jong Hui , 김진화 Kim Jin Hwa , 김선희 Kim Seon Hui
42(3) 353368, 2003
이종희 Lee Jong Hui , 김진화 Kim Jin Hwa , 김선희 Kim Seon Hui
DOI: JANT Vol.42(No.3) 353368, 2003
Analogy, based on a similarity, is to infer the properties of the similar object from properties of an object. It can be a very useful thinking tool for learning mathematical patterns and laws, noticing on relational properties among various situations. The purpose of this study, when manipulating hint condition, figure and table conditions and the amount of original learning by using algebra word problems, is to verify the effects of analogical transfer in solving equivalent, isomorphic and similar problems and similar problems according to the similarity of source problems and target ones. Five study questions were set up for the above purpose. It was 354 first grade students of S and G middle schools in Seoul that were experimented for this study. The data was processed by MANOVA analysis of statistical program, SPSS 10.0. The results of this studies would indicate that most of the students would be poor at solving isomorphic and similar problems in the performance of analogical transfer according to the similarity of source and target problems. Hints, figure and table conditions did not facilitate the analogical transfer. Merely, on the condition that amount of learning was increased, analogical transfer of the students was facilitated. Therefore, it is necessary to have students do much more analogical problemsolving experience to improve their analogical reasoning ability through the instruction program development in the education fields.

A Study on Development of ProblemCentered Learning Materials for the 7th Mathematics Curriculum
신인선 Sin In Seon , 권점례 Kwon Jeom Lye
42(3) 369386, 2003
신인선 Sin In Seon , 권점례 Kwon Jeom Lye
DOI: JANT Vol.42(No.3) 369386, 2003
Problemcentered learning has many implications on teaching and learning mathematics. Students devise their solutions to solve problems and participate in the discussion with teacher and other students to share and justify their solution during the problemcentered learning. Therefore, we purposed to provide problemcentered learning materials to be able to use in teaching and learning the 7th mathematics curriculum in this study. First, we reviewed the 7th curriculum and its textbooks to know what and how students learn and suggested the problemcentered learning as a teaching method to perform the 7th curriculum. Next, we developed the problemcentered learning materials for 6th grade in elementary school and taught students with these materials to amend errors. Finally, we developed evaluation criteria to evaluate students while they learned mathematics in the problemcentered learning.

Guided Reinvention of Euler Algorithm: An Analysis of Progressive Mathematization in RMEBased Differential Equations Course
권오남 Kwon O Nam , 주미경 Ju Mi Gyeong , 김영신 Kim Yeong Sin
42(3) 387402, 2003
권오남 Kwon O Nam , 주미경 Ju Mi Gyeong , 김영신 Kim Yeong Sin
DOI: JANT Vol.42(No.3) 387402, 2003
Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) focuses on guided reinvention through which students explore experientially realistic context problems to develop informal problem solving strategies and solutions. This research applied this philosophy of RME to design a differential equation course at a university level. In particular, the course encouraged the students of the course to use numerical methods to slove differential equations. In this contest, the purpose of this research was to describe the developmental process in which the students constructed and reinvented Euler algorithm in the class. For the purpose, this paper will present the didactical principle of RME and describe the process of developmental research to investigate the inferential process of students in solving the first order differential equation numerically. Finally, the qualitative analysis of the students` reasoning and use of symbols reveals how the students reinvent Euler algorithm under the didactical principle of guided reinvention. In this research, it has been found that the students developed deep understanding of Euler algorithm in the class. Moreover, it has been shown that the experience of doing mathematics in the course had a positive impact on students` mathematical belief and attitude. These findings imply that the didactical principle of RME can be applied to design university mathematical courses and in general, provide a perspective on how to reform mathematics curriculum at a university level.

The Effects of the Use of Calculators in Elementary School Mathematics Education
남승인 Nam Seung In , 류성림 Lyu Seong Lim , 백선수 Baeg Seon Su
42(3) 403417, 2003
남승인 Nam Seung In , 류성림 Lyu Seong Lim , 백선수 Baeg Seon Su
DOI: JANT Vol.42(No.3) 403417, 2003
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of the use of calculators in elementary school mathematics education. For this purpose, we established the subject matters of the research as follows; (1) to develop the lesson plan and the students` activity sheet related to the use of calculators. (2) to analyze the effects of the use of calculators when we applied the materials developed. Four classes of sixth grade students were sampled two elementary schools in D city. Two of them were assigned to the calculator group and the others to traditional group. The experiment was conducted for 10 class times. Two kinds of test instruments were used: pretest and post test. The pretest scores guaranteed that both groups were homogeneous. Posttest was used to identify the effect of use of calculator and the posttest scores were analyzed by ttest. We also used questionnaire to identify the students` change of attitude toward mathematics. The results of this study as follows: (1) The calculator group got scores significantly higher than the traditional group on the test. (2) The students` attitude in calculator group was changed a little positively.

A Study on Teaching Method of OneSample Test for Population Mean
김용태 Kim Yong Tae , 이장택 Lee Jang Taeg
42(3) 419423, 2003
김용태 Kim Yong Tae , 이장택 Lee Jang Taeg
DOI: JANT Vol.42(No.3) 419423, 2003
The main purpose of this paper is to investigate effects of skewness and kurtosis on the onesample test. We have found that type I error brought about a little bit change which is ignorable in relation to kurtosis. Also the change of type I error was completely based on skewness under the same size of the sample. We conclude that using ttest is more similar to robust than using ztest. In introductory statistics classes where data analysis includes techniques for detecting skewness, we recommend the ttest when skewness is smaller than the value I to the onesample test for a mean when the variances is unknown using the probability of a type I error as the criterion of interest.
