A Study on the Comparison and Analysis of School Mathematics Curriculum in England and Korea : Focused on the "Number and Algebra" Domain
황혜정 Hye Jeang Hwang , 신항균 Hang Kyun Shin
41(3) 233256, 2002
황혜정 Hye Jeang Hwang , 신항균 Hang Kyun Shin
DOI: JANT Vol.41(No.3) 233256, 2002
This study investigated school mathematics curriculum of England, newly revised in 1998, focused on the `number and algebra` domain among three major domains of the English curriculum. On the basis of its understanding, this domain was compared and analyzed with school mathematics curriculum of Korea. In doing so, this study explored its plans and procedures and established a frame of comparison for the curriculums between the two countries. The structure of the National Curriculum in England is composed of programmes of study and attainment targets. The former sets out what should be taught in mathematics at key stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 and provides the basis for planning schemes of work, and the latter sets out the knowledge, skills, and understanding that pupils of different abilities and matures are expected to have by the end of each key stage. Attainment targets are composed of eight levels and an additional level of increasing difficulty. According to the results of the present study, Korea focuses on the formal and systematic mathematical knowledge on the basis of sound understanding of certain mathematical terms or concepts. On the other hand, England tends to deal with numbers more flexibly and naturally through the aquisition of mental methods, calculator use methods, etc, and emphasizes that mathematics be realistic and useful in solving a diverse number of problems confronted in everyday life.

A Study on the Factors Influencing Mathematic Teacher`s Instruction
방정숙 Jeong Suk Pang
41(3) 257271, 2002
방정숙 Jeong Suk Pang
DOI: JANT Vol.41(No.3) 257271, 2002
As a part of attempts to understand better mathematics classroom culture, this paper first reviews plausible factors which influence the mathematics teacher`s own development of instructional goals. The proposed factors consist of teacher characteristics and sociocultural factors. The teacher factors include learning and teaching experience, knowledge, beliefs, and personality traits. The sociocultural factors include cultural and educational norms, curriculum development and administration, teacher education, and professional models with community. This paper then presents detailed interview questions to explore significant influences on the teacher`s conceptions of mathematics and its teaching. The interview probes 12 topic areas: (a) early influences on becoming a teacher, (b) the decision to become a teacher, (c) the teacher education years, (d) early mathematics interests, (e) early teaching experiences, (f) career path, (g) influence of peers within the school, (h) influence of administrators, (i) professional development, (j) professional selfdevelopment, (k) mathematics teaching, and (l) educational policies.

Investigation of Present State about Mathematical Reasoning in Secondary School : Focused on Types of Mathematical Reasoning
이종희 Chong Hee Lee , 김선희 Sun Hee Kim
41(3) 273289, 2002
이종희 Chong Hee Lee , 김선희 Sun Hee Kim
DOI: JANT Vol.41(No.3) 273289, 2002
It tends to be emphasized that mathematics is the important discipline to develop students` mathemaical reasoning abilities such as deduction, induction, analogy, and visual reasoning. This study is aimed for investigating the present state about mathematical reasoning in secondary school. We survey teachers` opinions and analyze the results. The results are analyzed by frequency analysis including percentile, ttest, and MANOVA. Results are the following: 1. Teachers recognized mathematics as knowledge constructed by deduction, induction, analogy and visual reasoning, and evaluated their reasoning abilities high. 2. Teachers indicated the importances of reasoning in curriculum, the necessities and the representations, but there are significant difference in practices comparing to the former importances. 3. To evaluate mathematical reasoning, teachers stated that they needed items and rubric for assessment of reasoning. And at present, they are lacked. 4. The hindrances in teaching mathematical reasoning are the lack of method for appliance to mathematics instruction, the unpreparedness of proposals for evaluation method, and the lack of whole teachers` recognition for the importance of mathematical reasoning.

Investigation on the Primary School Children`s Abilities of Formal Reasoning
라병소 Byung So Na , 신경자 Kyung Ja Shin , 신준식 Joon Sik Shin , 서동엽 Dong Yeop Seo
41(3) 291318, 2002
라병소 Byung So Na , 신경자 Kyung Ja Shin , 신준식 Joon Sik Shin , 서동엽 Dong Yeop Seo
DOI: JANT Vol.41(No.3) 291318, 2002
We investigated on the primary school children`s abilities of formal reasoning. Seventy students in grade 5 participated in the study. They responsed their best reactions on the problems constituted of three parts requiring the informal or formal reasoning and generalization. Their reactions are classified by some criteria depending the level of reasoning. About 10 students showed that they constructed a kind of scheme for solving the problems, similar to formal reasoning and beyond naive informal reasoning. And about 30 students did so partially. We concluded that the teaching and learning of reasoning by the progressive increasing the degree of rigor from grade 5 is possible.

A Study on the Gender Difference in Mathematical Literacy from the PISA
박경미 Kyung Mee Park , 최승현 Seung Hyun Choe
41(3) 319328, 2002
박경미 Kyung Mee Park , 최승현 Seung Hyun Choe
DOI: JANT Vol.41(No.3) 319328, 2002
The PISA(Program for International Student Assessment), an international comparative study supervised by OECD, aims at producing reliable and internationally comparable indicators of students` literacy in reading, mathematics, and science. In mathematical literacy, Korean students ranked the 2nd out of the 32 participating countries in PISA. This result is very encouraging in the sense that the scores in the mathematical literacy are a forecasting indicator for the mathematical level of future citizens who are supposed to lead their countries in every field. However, Korean students showed the largest gender difference in mathematical literacy, indicating that male students achieved significantly higher scores than female counterparts. With the consideration that mathematics plays a key role in determining the overall achievement level and influences on the longterm career opportunities, it is necessary to pay more attention to the gender difference in mathematical literacy, and make an effort to reduce it to enhance the overall intelligence level of Korean human resources.

A Study on the Meaning of "Social Construction" in Mathematics Education
홍진곤 Jin Kon Hong
41(3) 329339, 2002
홍진곤 Jin Kon Hong
DOI: JANT Vol.41(No.3) 329339, 2002
This study analyzes the epistemological meaning of `social construction` in mathematical instruction. The perspective that consider the cognition of mathematical concept as a social construction is explained by a cyclic scheme of an academic context and a school context. Both of the contexts require a public procedure, social conversation. However, there is a considerable difference that in the academic context it is Lakatos` `logic of mathematical discovery`. In the school context, it is Vygotsky`s `instructional and learning interaction`. In the situation of mathematics education, the `society` which has an influence on learner`s cognition does not only mean `collective members`, but `form of life` which is constituted by the activity with purposes, language, discourse, etc. Teachers have to play a central role that guide and coordinate the educational process involving interactions with learners in this context. We can get useful suggestions to mathematics education through this consideration of the social contexts and levels to form didactical situations of mathematics.

A Study on the Effectiveness of Dynamic Geometry Software in Solving High School Analytic Geometry Problems
황우형 Woo Hyung Whang , 차순규 Soon Gyu Cha
41(3) 341360, 2002
황우형 Woo Hyung Whang , 차순규 Soon Gyu Cha
DOI: JANT Vol.41(No.3) 341360, 2002
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of dynamic software in solving high school analytic geometry problems compared with traditional algebraic approach. Three high school students who have revealed high performance in mathematics were involved in this study. It was considered that they mastered the basic concepts of equations of plane figure and curves of secondary degree. The research questions for the study were the followings: 1) In what degree students understand relationship between geometric approach and algebraic approach in solving geometry problems? 2) What are the difficulties students encounter in the process of using the dynamic software? 3) In what degree the constructions of geometric figures help students to understand the mathematical concepts? 4) What are the effects of dynamic software in constructing analytic geometry concepts? 5) In what degree students have developed the images of algebraic concepts? According to the results of the study, it was revealed that mathematical connections between geometric approach and algebraic approach was complementary. And the students revealed more rely on the algebraic expression over geometric figures in the process of solving geometry problems. The conceptual images of algebraic expression were not developed fully, and they blamed it upon the current college entrance examination system.
