The Problems and Solution of Courseware Used in Mathematical Education
김원종 W . J . Kim
31(1) 19, 1992
김원종 W . J . Kim
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 19, 1992

An Analysis on the Effects of Logo Programming for the Development of the Logical Thinking
김수환 , 이재학 S . H . Kim , J . H . Lee
31(1) 1122, 1992
김수환 , 이재학 S . H . Kim , J . H . Lee
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 1122, 1992

A Study on Recognition and Learning in Probability and Statistics for HighSchool Students
이혜진 , 김원경 H . J . Lee , W . K . Kim
31(1) 2334, 1992
이혜진 , 김원경 H . J . Lee , W . K . Kim
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 2334, 1992

A Study on the ndimensional Compact Manifolds
김경호 K . H . Kim
31(1) 3537, 1992
김경호 K . H . Kim
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 3537, 1992

A Study on a Polynomial Representation of Finite Posets Using Order Preserving Maps
이민섭 Min Surp Rhee
31(1) 3948, 1992
이민섭 Min Surp Rhee
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 3948, 1992

On γ*  Spaces Over α
민원근 Won Keun Min
31(1) 4951, 1992
민원근 Won Keun Min
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 4951, 1992

Approximate MaxMin Controllability for Delay System
권영철 Kwun Young Chel
31(1) 5358, 1992
권영철 Kwun Young Chel
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 5358, 1992

Announcement of 1992 National Meeting of Mathematical Education
학회자료
31(1) 5962, 1992
학회자료
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 5962, 1992

THE SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION QUEBEC , CANADA
학회자료
31(1) 6363, 1992
학회자료
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 6363, 1992

Development of Curriculum of the Department of Mathematics Education
이훈범 , 박배훈 H . B . Lee , B . H . Park
31(1) 6778, 1992
이훈범 , 박배훈 H . B . Lee , B . H . Park
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 6778, 1992

A Study on Development of curriculum of the Department of mathematics Education
신현성 H . S . Shin
31(1) 7992, 1992
신현성 H . S . Shin
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 7992, 1992

Cognitive Effects of Mathematical Preexperiences on Learning in Elementary School Mathematics
이명숙 , 전평국 M . S . Lee , P . K . Jeon
31(1) 93107, 1992
이명숙 , 전평국 M . S . Lee , P . K . Jeon
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 93107, 1992
The purpose of this study is to make out teachinglearning method for developing mathematical abilities of the 1st grade children in elementary school by investigating cognitive effects which mathematical preexperiences given intentionally by teachers have on children`s learning mathematics. The research questions for this purpose are as follows: In learning effects through mathematical preexperiences given intentionally by teachers, 1) is there any differences between children with preexperiences and children without them in Mathematics Achievement Test? 2) is there any differences between children with preexperiences and children without them in Transfer Test for learning effects? For this study, a class with 41 children in H elementary school located in a Myon near Chongju was selected an experimental group and a class with 43 children in G elementary school in the same Myon was selected as a control group. Nonequivalent Control Group Design of QuasiExperimental Design was applied to this study. To give preexperiences to the children in experimental group, their classroom was equipped with materials for preexperiences, so children could always observe the materials and play with there. The materials were a roundclock on the wall, two pairs of scales, fifty dice, some small pebbles, two pairs of weight scales, two rulers on the wall, and various cards for playing games. Preexperiences were given to the children repeatedly through games and observations during free time in the morning (08:2009:00) and intervals between periods. There was a pretest for homogeneity of mathematics achievement between the two groups and were Mathematics Achievement Test (30 items) and Transfer Test (25 items) for learning effects as posttests. The data were collected from the pretest on April 8 (control group), on April 11 (experimental group) and from the Mathematics Achievement Test and Transfer Test on July 15 (experimental group) and on July 16 (control group). Ttest was used to analyze if there were any differences in the results of the test. The results of the analysis were as follows: (1) As the result of pretest, there was not a significance difference between the experimental group (M=17.10, SD=7.465) and the control group (M=16.31, SD=6.974) at p<.05 (p=0.632). (2) For the question 1, in the Mathematics Achievement Test, there was a significant difference between the experimental group (M=26.08, SD=4827) and the control group (M=22.28, SD=5.913) at p<.01 (p=.003). (3) For the question 2, in the Transfer Test for learning effects, there was a significant difference between the experimental group (M=16.41, SD=5.800) and the control group (M=11.84, SD=4.815) at p<.001 (p=.000). From the results of the analyses obtained in this study, the following conclusions can be drawn: First, mathematical preexperiences given by teachers are effective in increasing mathematical achievement and transfer in learning mathematics. Second, games, observations, and experiments given intentionally by teachers can make children`s mathematical experiences rich and various, and are effective in adjusting individual differences for the mathematical experiences obtained before they entered elementary schools. Third, it is necessary for teachers to give mathematical preexperiences with close attention in order to stimulate children`s mathematical interests and intellectual curiosity.

The Effect of the Belief System on the Problem Solving Performance of the Middle School Students
권세화 , 전평국 S . H . Kwon , P . K . Jeon
31(1) 109119, 1992
권세화 , 전평국 S . H . Kwon , P . K . Jeon
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 109119, 1992
The primary purpose of the present study is to provide the sources to improve the mathematical problem solving performance by analyzing the effects of the belief systems and the misconceptions of the middle school students in solving the problems. To attain the purpose of this study, the research is designed to find out the belief systems of the middle school students in solving the mathematical problems, to analyze the effects of the belief systems and the attitude on the process of the problem solving, and to identify the misconceptions which are observed in the problem solving. The sample of 295 students(boys 145, girls 150) was drawn out of 9th grade students from three middle schools selected in the Kangdong district of Seoul. Three kinds of tests were administered in the present study : the tests to investigate (1) the belief systems, (2) the mathematical problem solving performance, and (3) the attitude in solving mathematical problems. The frequencies of each of the test items on belief systems and attitude, and the scores on the problem solving performance test were collected for statistical analyses. The protocals written by all subjects on the paper sheets to investigate the misconceptions were analyzed. The statistical analysis has been tabulated on the scale of 100. On the analysis of written protocals, misconception patterns has been identified. The conclusions drawn from the results obtained in the present study are as follows; First, the belief systems in solving problems is splited almost equally, 52.96% students with the belief vs 47.05% students with lack of the belief in their efforts to tackle the problems. Almost half of them lose their belief in solving the problems as soon as they give. Therefore, it is suggested that they should be motivated with the mathematical problems derived from the daily life which drew their interests, and the individual difference should be taken into account in teaching mathematical problem solving. Second, the students who readily approach the problems are full of confidence. About 56% students of all subjects told that they enjoyed them and studied hard, while about 26% students answered that they studied hard because of the importance of the mathematics. In total, 81.5% students built their confidence by studying hard. Meanwhile, the students who are poor in mathematics are lack of belief. Among are the students accounting for 59.4% who didn`t remember how to solve the problems and 21.4% lost their interest in mathematics because of lack of belief. Consequently, the internal factor accounts for 80.8%. Thus, this suggests both of the cognitive and the affective objectives should be emphasized to help them build the belief on mathematical problem solving. Third, the effects of the belief systems in problem solving ability show that the students with high belief demonstrate higher ability despite the lack of the memory of the problem solving than the students who depend upon their memory. This suggests that we develop the mathematical problems which require the diverse problem solving strategies rather than depend upon the simple memory. Fourth, the analysis of the misconceptions shows that the students tend to depend upon the formula or technical computation rather than to approach the problems with efforts to fully understand them. This tendency was generally observed in the processes of the problem solving. In conclusion, the students should be taught to clearly understand the mathematical concepts and the problems requiring the diverse strategies should be developed to improve the mathematical abilities.

A study for pointwise by a 1irregular mesh
이형 , 진기범 H . Lee , K . B . Jin
31(1) 121132, 1992
이형 , 진기범 H . Lee , K . B . Jin
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 121132, 1992
The pointwise convergence define the relationship between the meshsize and the tolerance. This will play an important role in improving quality of finite element approximate solution. In this paper, We evaluate the convergence on a certaon unknown point with a 1irregular mesh refinement This means that the degree of freedom is minmized within a tolerance.

A STUDY ON KERNEL ESTIMATION OF A SMOOTH DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION ON CENSORED DATA
Eun Sook Jee
31(1) 133140, 1992
Eun Sook Jee
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 133140, 1992
The problem of estimating a smooth distribution function F at a point γ based on randomly right censored data is treated under certain smoothness conditions on F. The asymptotic performance of a certain class of kernel estimators is compared to that of the Kap lanMeier estimator of F(γ). It is shown that the relative deficiency of the KaplanMeier estimator of F(γ) with respect to the appropriately chosen kernel type estimator tends to infinity as the sample size n increases to infinity. Strong uniform consistency and the weak convergence of the normalized process are also proved.

A PROPERTY OF PINJECTIVE RING
CHAN YONG HONG
31(1) 141144, 1992
CHAN YONG HONG
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 141144, 1992

DEGREES OF IRREDUCIBLE CHARACTERS AND NORMAL πCOMPLEMENT
JOONG SANG SHIN
31(1) 145148, 1992
JOONG SANG SHIN
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 145148, 1992

GENERALIZED FRACTIONS AND REGULAR SEQUENCES
JOONG SANG SHIN
31(1) 149155, 1992
JOONG SANG SHIN
DOI: JANT Vol.31(No.1) 149155, 1992
