The Present Situations and Subjects of Mathematics Education in Japan
Kazuo Iwago
24(2) 926, 1986
Kazuo Iwago
DOI: JANT Vol.24(No.2) 926, 1986
The mathematics education circles in Japan has a variety of subjects. I want to speak what generally are considered on those subjects. Some of these subjects are as follows: (1) The ratio of students who go on to high schools is about 95 percent, so that it is hard to solve how to design the mathematics curriculum for the poor scholars. (2) Though the effects of instruction at the schools does not betray the nation`s trust, the JUKU increase in number. Thus all teachers in schools cannot but endeavor to fulfil their responsibility. (3) Some of the junior high school`s teachers suffer from the misconducts and violences by pupils. Thus researchers of mathematics education in such schools tend to stagnate. (4) The students and pupils get good results in the examinations of calculation, but in the examinations such as word problems that require their judgements not so. Etc. It is not easy to solve or cope with the these subjects. For the subjects as (3), all teachers concentrate their efforts on the activation of lessons and the heightening the pupil`s will to learn. For the subjects as (4), the idea of mathematical thinking has be advocated since about 1960, and recently the "problem solving" are proposed and are studying. Lastly the researchers in the university are theorizing their own works and digest and utilize a large foreign`s literatures. Furthermore a great number of teachers make an effort to research at their classrooms. But a great part of the results of their researches are utilized only in our country. I hope, hereafter, that the effects of researches in Japan become known and utilized to the foreign countries.

The Early Textbook Authorization System and the Textbooks of Mathematics
Taro Kunitsugu
24(2) 2734, 1986
Taro Kunitsugu
DOI: JANT Vol.24(No.2) 2734, 1986
At present, Japanese textbooks of mathematics for elementary and secondary schools are authorized by the Ministry of Education. In former days, this system was also in effect for elementary schools until 1905 and for secondary schools until 1944. In this article we discuss the start and the change of this system until 1905 and its influences on the textbooks of mathematics. The main interest of the system was originally to prevent the textbooks from having the expressions which have the fear of breaking laws, disturbing the public morals or mistaking the real facts. The interest changed to assure that the textbooks might comply with the national standards of teaching syllabuses. And the standards such as the ones of the sizes of letters in the textbooks were made public one after another. The comments attached to the textbooks which applied for the authorization often pointed out the use of unsuitable concrete numbers. The comments were often concerned with the difficulty of words or sentenses for elementary schools and with the incorrectness of mathematical contents for secondary schools. We conclude that the system encouraged the rapid modernization and regularization of Japanese textbooks during this period. We may note that there was a tendency not to adopt an extremely unusual trial into the textbooks.

Possibility of Micro Computer Uses in Mathematics Education
식촌철랑 植村哲郞
24(2) 3547, 1986
식촌철랑 植村哲郞
DOI: JANT Vol.24(No.2) 3547, 1986
As computer is diffused in society widely, it is desired that we investigate on computer uses in school education. In this paper, Possibility of Micro computer uses in mathematics education is investigated. Educational computing is classified roughly three categories they are CAI CMI and Computer iteracy education. CAI is discussed at this place. Firstly, programs of mathematics educational computing is introduced and they are classified into Practicing, Tutoring, Simulating, Gaming, Demonstration, Informing. Next, the problems that we must notice in mathematics educational computing are indicated. They are computer language, development of soft ware, effectiveness of CAI etc...

Mathematics and Society in Koryo and Chosun
정지호 Ji Ho Joung
24(2) 4873, 1986
정지호 Ji Ho Joung
DOI: JANT Vol.24(No.2) 4873, 1986
Though the tradition of Korean mathematics since the ancient time up to the "Enlightenment Period" in the late 19th century had been under the influence of the Chinese mathematics, it strove to develop its own independent of Chinese. However, the fact that it couldn`t succeed to form the independent Korean mathematics in spite of many chances under the reign of Kings Sejong, Youngjo, and Joungjo was mainly due to the use of Chinese characters by Koreans. Hangul (Korean characters) invented by King Sejong had not been used widely as it was called and despised Unmun and Koreans still used Chinese characters as the only "true letters" (Jinsuh). The correlation between characters and culture was such that, if Koreans used Hangul as their official letters, we may have different picture of Korean mathematics. It is quite interesting to note that the mathematics in the "Enlightenment Period" changed rather smoothly into the Western mathematics at the time when Hangul was used officially with Chinese characters. In Koryo, the mathematics existed only as a part of the Confucian refinement, not as the object of sincere study. The mathematics in Koryo inherited that of the Unified Shilla without any remarkable development of its own, and the mathematicians were the Inner Officials isolated from the outside world who maintained their positions as specialists amid the turbulence of political changes. They formed a kind of Guild, their posts becoming patrimony. The mathematics in Koryo significant in that they paved the way for that of Chosun through a few books of mathematics such as "SanhakKyemong", "YanghwiSanpup" and "SangmyungSanpup". King Sejong was quite phenomenal in his policy of promotion of mathematics. King himself was deeply interested in the study, creating an atmosphere in which all the high ranking officials and scholars highly valued mathematics. The sudden development of mathematic culture was mainly due to the personality and capacity of king who took any one with the mathematic talent into government service regardless of his birth and against the strong opposition of the conservative officials. However, King`s view of mathematics never resulted in the true development of mathematics per se and he used it only as an official technique in the tradition way. Korean mathematics in King Sejong`s reign was based upon both the natural philosophy in China and the unique geopolitical reality of Korean peninsula. The reason why the mathematic culture failed to develop continually against those social background was that the mathematicians were not allowed to play the vital role in that culture, they being only the instrument for the personality or politics of the king. While the learned scholar class sometimes played the important role for the development of the mathematic culture, they often as not became an adamant barrier to it. As the society in Chosum needed the function of mathematics acutely, the mathematicians formed the settled class called Jungin (MiddleMan), Jungin was a unique class in Chosun and we can`t find its equivalent in China or Japan. These Jungin mathematician officials lacked tendency to publish their study, since their society was strictly exclusive and their knowledge was very limited. Though they were relatively low class, these mathematicians played very important role in Chosun society. In "SilHak (the Practical Learning) period" which began in the late 16th century, especially in the reigns of Kings Youngjo and Jungjo, which was called the Renaissance of Chosun, the ambitious policy for the development of science and technology called for, the rapid increase of the number of such technocrats as mathematics, astronomy and medicine. Amid these social changes, the Jungin mathematicians inevitably became quite ambitious and proud. They tried to explore deeply into mathematics per se beyond the narrow limit of knowledge required for their office. Thus, in this period the mathematics

The Correlation between the Variables of Family Circumstances and Personality and that of the Child's Mathematical Ability
오병승 , 배종수 Byung Seung Oh , Jong Soo Bai
24(2) 74104, 1986
오병승 , 배종수 Byung Seung Oh , Jong Soo Bai
DOI: JANT Vol.24(No.2) 74104, 1986
This study aims at investigating the correlation between such variables as a child`s family circumstance and personality and that of the child`s mathematical ability. For the objects of the study five hundreds and sixteen students (male 273, female 243) were randomly selected from the fifth grade primary school students in the city of Seoul. For the tool of measure the investigation of Korean family circumstances with particular characteristics, the personality test by Cho˘ng Po˘m Mo and Kim Ho Kwo˘n, and the intelligence test by Lee Sang Ro, Chin Whal Kyo and Pyo˘n Chang Jin were employed. For the statistical analysis S. A. S. C., the statistical analysis package of KAIST was employed. The resutis of the test can be summarized as follows. The correlation between the variable of family Circumstance and that of mathematical alility 1) In case of the significance level 0.05 the education of the child`s mother and the order of the child`s birth have much to do with the perception speed. In case of the significance level 0.1 it makes some difference in the child`s perception spead whether the child`s mother has a job or not. 2) In case of the significance level 0.05 the education of the child`s father and mother, the father`s job and the type of habitation have influence on the child`s perception of space. 3) In case of the significance level 0.05 the education of the child`s father and mother, the father`s job, the order of the child`s birth, the type of habitation, their religion, and their cultural, and economic standard have influence on the child`s ability of inference. 4) In case of the significance level 0.05 the education of the child`s father and mother, the father`s job, the type of habitation, their religion and their cultural and economic standard have influence on the child`s ability of calculation. 5) In case of the significance level 0.05 any variable of the child`s family circumstance has nothing to do with the child`s memory. In case of the significance level 0.1 the type of family and the type of habitation have effect on the child`s memory. 6) In case of the significance level 0.05 the education of the child`s parents, the jobs of the parents, the type of habtation, their religion, and their cultural and economic standard have influence on the child`s linguistic notion. The correlation between the variable of the child`s personality and that of the child`s mathematical ability 1) In regard to the priority of the variables influencing the child`s perception speed, the child`s discretion comes first in order, and then sociability and impulsiveness of the child. 2) The child`s discretion has effect on the child`s space perception. 3) The child`s discretion has effect on the child`s ability of inference. 4) In regard to the child`s ability of calculation the child`s discretion comes first in order, and then impulsiveness and sociability of the child. 5) The child`s discretion has effect on memory. 6) The child`s discretion has effect on the child`s linguistic notion.

The Persuit of Rationality and the Mathematics Education
강원 Kang Wan
24(2) 105116, 1986
강원 Kang Wan
DOI: JANT Vol.24(No.2) 105116, 1986
For any thought and knowledge, its growth and development has close relation with the society where it is developed and grow. As Feuerbach says, the birth of spirit needs an existence of two human beings, i.e. the social background, as well as the birth of body does. But, at the educational viewpoint, the spread and the growth of such a thought or knowledge that influence favorably the development of a society must be also considered. We would discuss the goal and the function of mathematics education in relation with the prosperity of a technological civilization. But, the goal and the function are not unrelated with the spiritual culture which is basis of the technological civilization. Most societies of today can be called open democratic societies or societies which are at least standing such. The concept of rationality in such societies is a methodological principle which completes the democratic society. At the same time, it is asserted as an educational value concept which explains comprehensively the standpoint and the attitude of one who is educated in such a society. Especially, we can considered the cultivation of a mathematical thinking or a logical thinking in the goal of mathematics education as a concept which is included in such an educational value concept. The use of the concept of rationality depends on various viewpoints and criterions. We can analyze the concept of rationality at two aspects, one is the aspect of human behavior and the other is that of human belief or knowledge. Generally speaking, the rationality in human behavior means a problem solving power or a reasoning power as an instrument, i.e. the human economical cast of mind. But, the conceptual condition like this cannot include value concept. On the other hand, the rationality in human knowledge is related with the problem of rationality in human belief. For any statement which represents a certain sort of knowledge, its universal validity cannot be assured. The statements of value judgment which represent the philosophical knowledge cannot but relate to the argument on the rationality in human belief, because their finality do not easily turn out to be true or false. The positive statements in science also relate to the argument on the rationality in human belief, because there are no necessary relations between the proposition which states the allpervasive rule and the proposition which is induced from the results of observation. Especially, the logical statement in logic or mathematics resolves itself into a question of the rationality in human belief after all, because all the logical proposition have their logical propriety in a certain deductive system which must start from some axioms, and the selection and construction of an axiomatic system cannot but depend on the belief of a man himself. Thus, we can conclude that a question of the rationality in knowledge or belief is a question of the rationality both in the content of belief or knowledge and in the process where one holds his own belief. And the rationality of both the content and the process is namely an ideal form of a human ability and attitude in one`s rational behavior. Considering the advancement of mathematical knowledge, we can say that mathematics is a good example which reflects such a human rationality, i. e. the human ability and attitude. By this property of mathematics itself, mathematics is deeply rooted as a good subject which is needed in moulding the ability and attitude of a rational person who contributes to the development of the open democratic society he belongs to. But, it is needed to analyze the practicing and pursuing the rationality especially in mathematics education. Mathematics teacher must aim the rationality of process where the mathematical belief is maintained. In fact, there is no problem in the rationality of content as long as the mathematics teacher does not draw mathematical conclusions without bases. But, in the mathematical a

A Study of mathematics Power for social Life
박한식 Han Shick Park
24(2) 117125, 1986
박한식 Han Shick Park
DOI: JANT Vol.24(No.2) 117125, 1986
The education of mathematics in generalized schooling should aim to concentrate on the cultivation of mathematical abilities necessary for social life. Mathematical abilities for social life run as follows: A. Utilitarian aspects 1. classification and numbers 2. traffic network and connection of segments of lines 3. expectation of getting the winning number in a lottery 4. interests in dealing in unharvested rice crop B. Aesthetic aspects 1. finding the optimum value and 2. successful candidates in accordance with election methods Every nation has its own peculiar customs and circumstances. Therefore, in order to achieve the expected results, the education of mathematics should develop what every nation has on its own and apply them to school education.
